Notes from the “30 Day Mindfulness Challenge”
“The only spiritual life you need is not to react. To be calm [or present, in the moment, mindful…] is the greatest asset in the world. It’s the greatest siddhi, the greatest power you can have. If you can only learn to be calm you will solve every problem. This is something you must remember. When you are perfectly calm, time stops. There is no time, karma stops, samskaras stop. Everything becomes null and void. For when you are calm you are one with the entire energy of the universe and everything will go well with you. To be calm means you are in control. You’re not worried about the situation, the outcome. What is going to happen tomorrow? To be calm means everything is alright. There is nothing to worry about, nothing to fret over. This is also the meaning of the biblical saying, “Be still and know that I am God.” [Exodus 14:14] To be calm is to be still.” Ramana Maharshi
When I began attending week-long and month-long Vipassana meditation retreats back in the ’90s, physical movement like yoga or Qi Gong was discouraged. Instead, practitioners were urged to keep within the prescribed structure of sitting and walking meditation to enable mindfulness and minimize distraction. During this period yoga was rapidly spreading throughout the country and many serious yogin were infiltrating these meditation intensives. The yogin were coming to these retreats already familiar with discipline and enduring challenging situations, through movement and physical exercise. So, it wasn’t uncommon for some of us to be stretching or standing on our heads near our tents or in the restrooms, anywhere out of sight while breaking the rules. To just sit, restricting the body for days on end, presented a different type of obstacle for the yogin–the ego’s innate attachment to the body and the pride from identifying with a highly flexible, finely tuned one.
It took decades before meditation centers like Spirit Rock in California began offering combination meditation and yoga retreats, co-taught with yoga teachers who had gone through their Buddhist studies program. The inclusion of yoga was a welcome addition, yet the integration of yoga into a silent retreat was often not as seamless as one might think. The movement from cushions to yoga mats, the reorganizing of the room, the often-excessive verbal instruction of the yoga teacher compared to the mostly silent instruction of the meditation teacher made these two very similar disciplines feel distantly related. Yet, those experiences inspired me to find a way to more efficiently integrate these two paths with one goal.
For me the most important and pleasurable part of teaching yoga has evolved to focusing on postures and practices that bring instantaneous shifts in consciousness, creating a deeper union between the mind/body and the field of awareness that the mind/body appears within–instead of a mindfulness practice, more of a mindlessness experience. The result naturally allows an integrated meditative state to arise spontaneously, whether standing, moving, holding, or sitting. This experience is created by using specific elements and sequences from Qi Gong, somatic therapeutic modalities, various yoga pranayamas, kriyas, and particular asanas, all of which can elicit an immediate impact on the nervous system and the body’s connective tissue—myofascia. I also weave the open meditation practices of Dzogchen Buddhism and the Shakti Bandha–energetic cultivation and release modalities–found in the tantras of Kashmir Shaivism. In doing so, this causes the active thinking part of the mind to instantly settle and at the same time expand into Shiva consciousness, or as the Buddhist refer to it, the Big Sky Mind.
My role then, as an instructor, is to design the grouping of postures, movements, and practices, to evoke and then point out when this collective state of awareness is happening. Students then may become more familiar with its nature and to recognize, not only their internal experience but also the external collective experience as being one and the same. When this is experienced by each student at the same time, whether in a classroom setting or over Zoom, the energetic nature of the room perceptibly expands—consciousness is experienced as something palpable. We truly are one, we are eternal, in that moment presence is all that is happening. The student is no longer an individual sitting in a classroom having their individual experience but a communal experience of authentic nature as one united field of consciousness that can be felt beyond the senses–but includes the senses. Within this non-dualistic approach, its silent nature is heard, its infinite nature touched…“Namaste” suddenly transcends cliché and is realized as something genuine and boundless.
“Few skills are more essential than the ability to settle your body. If you can settle your body, you are more likely to be calm, alert, and fully present, no matter what is going on around you. A settled body enables you to harmonize and connect with other bodies around you while encouraging those bodies to settle as well. Gather together a large group of unsettled bodies or assemble a group of bodies and then unsettle them–and you get a mob or a riot. But bring a large group of settled bodies together and you have a potential movement–and a potential force for tremendous good in the world. A calm, settled body is the foundation for health, for healing, for helping others, and for changing the world.” “My Grandmother’s Hands” — Resmaa Menakema
Excerpt from Civil Rights Leader and Congressman John Lewis days before his passing.
“Though I may not be here with you, I urge you to answer the highest calling of your heart and stand up for what you truly believe. In my life, I have done all I can to demonstrate that the way of peace, the way of love and nonviolence is the more excellent way. Now it is your turn to let freedom ring.
When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and warSo I say to you, walk with the wind, brothers and sisters, and let the spirit of peace and the power of everlasting love be your guide.”
“From time immemorial we have been addicted to the self. It is how we identify ourselves. It is what we love most dearly. It is also what we hate most fiercely. Its existence is also the thing that we work hardest to try to validate. Almost everything that we do or think or have, including our spiritual path, is a means to confirm its existence. It is the self that fears failure and longs for success, fears hell and longs for heaven. The self loathes suffering and loves the causes of suffering. It stupidly wages war in the name of peace. It wishes for enlightenment but detests the path to enlightenment. It wishes to work as a socialist but lives like a capitalist. When the self feels lonely, it desires friendship. Its possessiveness of those it loves manifests in passion that can lead to aggression. Its supposed enemies – such as spiritual paths designed to conquer the ego – are often corrupted and recruited as the self’s ally. Its skills in playing the game of deception are nearly perfect. It weaves a cocoon around itself like a silkworm; but unlike a silkworm, it doesn’t know how to find the way out.” Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche
Enlightenment is a destructive process. It has nothing to do with becoming better or being happier. Enlightenment is the crumbling away of untruth. It’s seeing through the facade of pretense. It’s the complete eradication of everything we imagine to be true. Adyashanti
I came “out” in my early twenties but only because I didn’t know what to call it as a kid. My father didn’t speak to me for a year and my mother suggested that I do therapy. I explained to her that doing therapy is what enabled me to come “out”… When I began seriously studying yoga none of my teachers or fellow students was gay and this was the community that made up my day today. This was also during the period when most of the Eastern spiritual teachers and yogis frowned upon homosexuality and before most of them had been busted for inappropriate sexual behavior with their students.
Early in my teaching career, I was asked to teach yoga for a gay men’s group that led retreats and international travel. This was an amazing experience, to practice and teach yoga with a group of like-minded guys was the best of all possible worlds—a true healing. At the same time, I also didn’t want to be stigmatized as “the gay instructor” but as a reputable teacher worthy of all students–domestically and internationally. So, it was only decades later when I felt MOR established as a senior teacher that I felt comfortable with the inherent gayness in my style of teaching and being fully relaxed with my predominately heterosexual women students and the sprinkling of cisgender men.
For me, Gay Pride has always been less about parades and rainbows than a recognition of all the great LGBTQ people whose contributions to civilization have given shape, artistry, invention to culture since the beginning of time. Gay history is our history, as we both look to and, thank people like Alan Turing (computer scientist/ mathematician), James Baldwin (playwright/activist), David Hockney (artist), Leonardo Da Vinci (polymath/genius), Angela Davis (scholar/activist) Megan Rapinoe (Olympian soccer player), Sally Ride (astronaut), Stephen Sondheim (composer-lyricist), Rachel Maddow (political commentator)… And, today I am particularly proud and grateful for Black New York candidates, Ritchie Torres and Mondaire Jones–both “out” gays and progressives—who have just won
“As human beings, we have the power to uproot hatred and fear from our hearts, to dispel the ignorance in our minds, and to come to each other’s aid in times of need.
White supremacy and racism are older than any of us. We didn’t create the illness, but it’s our responsibility to be part of the cure. There is no simple answer, no “one thing” for all of us to do. But there is something for each of us to do. Each of us has a role to play in the healing of our world. Loving well means caring for one another and standing up for justice.
Stay resourced. Bear witness. Open your heart and make space to feel what’s there.”
-Oren Jay Sofer,
Mindfulness Meditation Teacher & Non-Violent Communication Facilitator
Q. How are we supposed to treat others?
A. There are no others.
– Ramana Maharshi
We practice yoga to feel MOR, open to MOR, become MOR of who we are beyond our preconceived notions, conditioning, preferences and aversions. It can be easy, it can be really hard, not always effortless, but always possible. If we can become more aware of our whole body when practicing asana, we become MOR present to what is taking place in the moment, the mind settles into single-pointedness and we glimpse the Self that is beyond the mind’s chatter and into the fullness and spaciousness of life.
We are being asked—and will continue to be asked, certainly for the remainder of this year—to keep opening up to great changes and to make great changes within our own hearts, communities and environments. That requires a lot of conscious breathing and steadfastness. If we are responsible and compassionate with ourselves when fear arises then the transparency of fear is experienced. That doesn’t mean it isn’t scary or that we always know how to digest and assimilate fear, but it does mean we can experience this emotion before it becomes something else outside of ourselves like the boogeyman, like racism… Stay steady, stay connected—to yourself and to others—turn to the practices that you know and love to help you navigate these unrestful times.
We are all in this together. Take action.
🙏 Hare Om, David
To assist in re-building businesses owned by my black neighbors in the Bay Area:
For my white friends and students, a few resources to fill in the historical gaps left out of our “American” education
“No one here to guide you, Now you’re on your own Only me beside you Still you’re not alone No one is alone, truly No one is alone Sometimes people leave you Halfway through the wood Others may deceive you, You decide what’s good, You decide alone, But no one is alone, People make mistakes, Fathers, Mothers, People make mistakes, Holding to their own, Thinking they’re alone Honor their mistakes Ev’rybody makes One another’s terrible mistakes Witches can be right,Giants can be good, You decide what’s right, You decide what’s good, Just remember, Someone is on your side Someone else is not, While you’re seeing your side, Maybe you forgot; They are not alone, No one is alone, Hard to see the light now, Just don’t let it go, Things will come out right now, We can make it so, Someone is on your side, Someone is on your side, no, no,No one is alone.”
“Do you think peace requires an end to war?
Or tigers eating only vegetables?
Does peace require an absence from
your boss, your spouse, yourself? …
Do you think peace will come some other place than here?
Some other time than Now?
In some other heart than yours?
Peace is this moment without judgment.
That is all. This moment in the Heart-space
where everything that is is welcome.
Peace is this moment without thinking
that it should be some other way,
that you should feel some other thing,
that your life should unfold according to your plans.
Peace is this moment without judgment,
this moment in the heart-space where
everything that is is welcome. ”
San Francisco Center for Meditation and Psychotherapy, and serves as Spiritual Director and President of Moon Mountain Sangha
Shelter-In-Place: Ayurvedic Remedies & Mor March 31st-April 4th
I have to admit, the yogi in me loves being in retreat… In fact, it took a week of students writing to me before I started teaching online. It was too much fun doing all the practices that I often don’t have time to get to. (See my self-retreat practice at bottom.) I felt like I was in southern India at my favorite Ayurveda center! What I am offering in this letter are some practices and choices for being in retreat (aka, Shelter-In-Place) and how yoga & Ayurveda have long recommended daily routines that the media is now suggesting in view of COVID-19. First some groundwork, recommendations that you’ve probably have heard but worth reviewing with the Ayurvedic/Yogic perspective thrown in:
Self-Care Ayurvedic Remedies in the Age of COVID-19:
Prevention Recommendations from Chinese Medicine & Ayurveda
- Drink hot liquids: tea, broth, soups, hot water with lemon, a pinch of sea salt, etc. Gargle with antiseptic in warm water daily, with lemon, salt, or apple cider vinegar. (Gargling with oil known as “kavala” or “gundusha,” is an ancient Ayurvedic dental technique that involves swishing a tablespoon of oil in your mouth on an empty stomach for around 20 minutes. This action supposedly draws out toxins in your body, primarily to improve oral health but also to improve your overall health.) Stay hydrated, drinking sips of warm water at least every 20 minutes. This not only keeps the mouth moist but if a virus has entered, it will wash it into the stomach where gastric juices can neutralize it before it gets to the lungs. Avoid eating and drinking cold things. This is a basic Ayurvedic principle for keeping digestion strong and capable of proper assimilation as well as the best way for staying hydrated and to support your immune system.
- The virus attaches to hair and clothes–soap or detergent kills the virus but you need to wash immediately before sitting down or touching anything else. If you can’t wash clothes daily, hang in the sun for up to 48 hours. Natural cleaning products are not strong enough to kill the virus on surfaces. Pull out the big guns and use hydrogen peroxide or Benzalkonium Chloride wipes.
- The virus can last up to 9 days on metal surfaces, handrails, elevator buttons, doorknobs. Clean such surfaces thoroughly.
- Don’t smoke… Anything! Cannabis can also compromise the immune system and weaken the lungs.
- Wash hands regularly and vigorously for 20 seconds preferably with a soap that foams. (Chant your favorite mantra for those 20 seconds!)
- Animals do not spread virus to people, people spread it to people.
- Keep zinc levels high, not just Vitamin C. Fresh fruits and vegetables are a good source.
- If you get a sore throat, attack it immediately with the above suggestions. The virus will stay in throat for 3 days before entering the lungs.
- Avoid getting the flu! I think this was lost in the translation but is another way of saying, keep your immune system strong. Getting the proper amount of sleep is a basic Ayurvedic/Yogic principle and is a great way to support your immune system. Staying at home affords us the luxury of better and longer sleep!
Also, because we are home, and possibly out of boredom we might be eating more often or snacking throughout the day. Maintaining a regular eating schedule of three meals a day will greatly support the immune system. Exercise! Yoga, Qi Gong, hike, bike… Get sunshine!!!
Nasal Drops for Clear Breathing & Prevention
The nose is the direct route to the brain and also the doorway to consciousness. It is the entrance for prana (life force,) which comes into the body through breathing. Healthy uncongested breathing ensures proper flow of prana throughout the head and body. When an excess of bodily fluids accumulates in the sinus, throat, nose, or head areas, it is best eliminated through the nose. Administration of herbally infused oil, “nasya”, helps facilitate this cleansing process. Nasya Oil soothes and protects the nasal passage while nourishing the tissues. Daily nasal lubrication helps to release tension in the head and relieve accumulated stress. Balancing for vata, pitta, and kapha doshas, Nasya Oil is also traditionally said to improve quality of voice, strengthen vision, and promote mental clarity. Not recommended if you have a cold, flu, or sinus infection (“Neti”, nasal irrigation with saline solution, is more astringent and better for these hindrances.) Keeping the nasal passages lubricated and moist, as well as the back of the throat has been discussed as a possible means of preventing viruses from landing since they seem to do better when landing on dry surfaces.
Nasya oils usual include refined sesame oil, olive oil, the Ayurvedic herbs of Brahmi/Gotu Kola powder, Calamus powder, Skullcap, Eucalyptus essential oil…
How to use Nasya oils:
- Begin by comfortably lying down on your back and tilting your head back with your nostrils opening towards the sky. If you are lying on a bed, you may hang your head off the edge of the bed or place a small pillow beneath your neck for support.
- Place 3–5 drops of nasya oil in each nostril. With skill, you can administer the oil, drop by drop, circling the inside perimeter of the nostril, thoroughly coating the nasal membranes.
- Take a big sniff in, then rest for a few minutes allowing the nasya to penetrate.
To buy Nasya Oil
Part 2: Touchy Subjects: The Age of “Me Too!” & COVID-19
Touch is one of our 5 sense organs, along with the eyes, mouth, nose, and ears. In yoga as in Ayurveda each sense organ is related to one of the 5 elements or “Pancha Bhutas” or “Maha Bhutas”; the eyes-fire, the mouth/tongue-water, the nose-earth, the ears-space, and the skin-air. Touch is as essential as hearing, smelling, tasting, and seeing. Can you imagine going without any one or two of these senses? How different our life would be. Yet, we live in an age where the amount of touch we receive and the amount we give is being restricted, perhaps even more than it has been in previous decades because of the “Me Too!” movement and now, “COVID-19.” Few of the other sense organs have had so much imposed upon it as touch has. So much so that we are more likely to forego touch before restricting ourselves from seeing, tasting, smelling, hearing. Consider all of the people that go without touch–the elderly in nursing care, the number of widows, young single people without partners, those who can’t afford a massage, sexless marriages or traumatized folks who get triggered from touch and therefore avoid it. (My partner is a doctor, going to the hospital daily, so we have also quarantined ourselves from intimate contact during this global Shelter-In-Place phenomenon.)
The current phobias around touch are accentuated by centuries of negative conditioning. No matter how liberated we become in our attitudes around sex and touch, it has left us–even on the most subconscious level–suspect of this vital contact. Think of the hesitancy and awkwardness that people often have around sharing a hug…The positive side of these current trends is that they are asking us to reevaluate what is healthy touch, appropriate, nourishing touch from that which is authoritarian, degrading and abusive.
We are inclined to forget how essential, how valuable touch is to our wellbeing prioritizing the other sense organs above it. Yet, our skin, our flesh is the body’s largest organ and therefore, capable of taking in a great amount of pleasurable stimulus–touching is how we experience life and how we nurture ourselves and others. Touch is a two-way street. Not only are we denying ourselves the healing, restorative, nurturing aspects of being touched due to COVID-19 but we may also be denied the pleasure of touching—both are essential and are, in fact, the same thing. When a massage therapist works on a client, the client opens up, letting go of stress as their mind and body begin wanting more and more of what they are receiving, “Don’t stop” goes the inner dialogue. At the same time the massage therapist is also being supported, receiving energy back through touch, satisfying their own desire for contact, while also being in touch with the healing energy moving through their entire body and accumulating in their hands. Or, how about when we touch our pets, isn’t it a joyously mutual exchange? We get pleasure in seeing our dog go ecstatic but we also feel that joy through our hands which is what we get back. Touch is as important to our overall wellbeing as a healthy diet, a good amount of sleep and exercise.
In both yoga and Ayurveda self-touch is part of these healing therapies, not only with the endless wrapping and folding of the body into itself in yoga postures but also through the use of “mudras” which use physical touch—mostly, but not exclusively, of the hands to redirect the subtle energy of the body. In Ayurveda, there is the fundamental daily practice of self-oil-massage called “Abhyanga.” This practice uses warm oils to lubricate, stimulate, and create better circulation the body and soothes the nervous system. “Abhyanga” is also done by an Ayurvedic massage therapist who will work this warm herbal infused oil deeply into your body, energizing the “marma” points (aka as Acupuncture meridians) and pathways. Another remedy is a Salt Scrub, traditionally done with chickpea flour but now with high-density mineral salts. See below for both treatments:
Healing Touch: Abhyanga
Abhyanga oil traditionally has Ashwagandha (Indian Ginseng), Bala, Vidari Kanda, Bacopa, Shatavari and ginger or cinnamon for warmth in it. But you can use sesame or safflower oil by itself or optionally with your favorite essential oil instead.
Warm 1/4-1/2 cup of oil, then, starting with your legs, rub the oil into the skin just like lotion. Use long strokes on the limbs and circular movements on your joints. Continue to move all the way up the body, moving in the direction of the heart– don’t rush, indulge and love yourself! In Sanskrit, the word sneha can be translated as both “oil” and “love.” So, in Ayurveda, there is an inherent connection between enveloping the body in oil and enveloping it in love. Both experiences can give a deep feeling of stability, warmth, and comfort.
Spend extra time on tight knots or super dry spots and don’t forget often overlooked body parts like the ears and bottoms of the feet. Once you’ve applied the oil, wrap yourself in an old towel or bathrobe and let it soak into the skin for at least 20 minutes. This is when is a great time to roll out your mat and settle into a Yoga Nidra or to meditate. I usually do Qi Gong during this time because I can do it standing and not get oil on anything else and both the self-massage and Qi Gong are great prep before a seated meditation. After 20 minutes, hop in the shower and rinse off any extra oil, not applying soap except to essential parts–pat yourself dry. Please note that frequently washing with hand sanitizers and soap will eventually dry the skin, Abhyanga is a great way to moisturize the skin and keep it from cracking.
Healing Touch: Salt Scrub
The abrasive action associated with salt scrubs invigorates the skin and helps to improve circulation while assisting our lymphatic system. Improved circulation gives skin a natural glow. Scrubbing with salt also helps to remove bacteria from the skin and unclog pores. Salt has antiseptic qualities, and when applied to the skin it may help kill bacteria and reduce inflammation along with any itching and pain associated with bacterial-related skin disease.
Exfoliating with a salt scrub not only removes dead skin cells and increases circulation, but it also encourages regeneration. Sloughing away dead skin cells actually promotes the growth of healthy new cells. This regeneration process tightens the skin, giving it a firmer and healthier-looking appearance. Skin regeneration also reduces skin discoloration, evening out skin tone and improving texture. But this vigorous scrubbing effects more than the superficial layer of the skin and can increase energy through the entire body as well as bringing greater mental clarity affecting our overall attitude and wellbeing.
Once you’ve made (see below) or purchased your salt scrub, work it into the entire body starting from the feet up. Chant, sing, love yourself before washing it off in the shower. Do not use soap except where necessary. As with Abhyanga oil massage, pat yourself dry so that a thin layer of the oil remains.
How to make:
Amount of ingredients for single use: double or triple for extra.
- Use a cup of a fine sea or Himalayan salt or a mixture of the two. (Coffee and sugar are also used)
- Add ½ cup of oil–sesame for extra dry skin—good for cooler environments, sunflower oil for normal skin or coconut oil for oily and warmer environments or seasons.
- Add 5 drops of essential oil. Usually lavender is a favorite for calming and soothing, peppermint for invigorating and daily aches and pains, rosemary is good for lung support and grapefruit is also uplifting and can even help with cellulite. The only essential oil that I had on hand this week was eucalyptus which is also good for the lungs and stimulation.
- Mix together in a bowl.
Here are two other specific formula options for Face & Feet:
Fragrant Himalayan salt face scrub
- 2 TBSP Himalayan salt
- 1 TBSP grapeseed oil
- 2 drops ylang-ylang essential oil
- 2 drops grapefruit essential oil
Refreshing Himalayan salt foot scrub
- 8 TBSP Himalayan salt
- 2 TBSP coconut oil
- 3 drops peppermint essential oil
- 5 drops lemongrass essential oil
Home Practice: April 13th -20th
When I started studying yoga in the late 70s I would drive one hour each way to see my teacher. This was once a week or when lucky twice. The rest of the week I would practice on my own before or after work with only my dog occasionally joining me on my mat. Now, a Home Practice means doing yoga with an App–having your instructor in your house 24-hours a day, via downloads or with Zoom and, the rest of your yoga community joining in as well as your cats and dogs. There is much benefit in both ways of practising and as much as I love seeing you in my Zoom classes and love our community, I hope you will find time to practice just with yourself as it can be very informative and revealing. Below I have included my self-retreat schedule and practices that I started with this Shelter-In-Place journey. Try it as a day-long retreat or use some of the practices as your daily routine.
As we enter week 4 of SIP and the spring urge to be active and outdoors arises, I hope that you will continue to take this time to listen, to absorb the YOU that has been forming over these precious weeks and to keep this gift of time and home something sacred. The “normal” that we will eventually return to will not be “normal” as we once knew it and will continue to change. We have all had a better glimpse under clearer skies of what is valuable and real to us, keep this close to your heart and walk forward from here—choose those ways that keep your heart happiest.
Dinacharya: This is my Daily Routine for Stay In Place & Retreats
- Qi Gong
- Meditation & Pranayama
(Kitchari (pronounced kich-uh-ree) is the traditional cleansing food of Ayurveda. It is a combination of split mung beans and white basmati rice with plenty of spices, depending on your constitution. Amidst all of the modern diet trends happening today, this might seem like an unusual cleansing food.)
- Social Media 🙂
- Asana Practice
- Yoga Nidra https://moryoga.com/store/yoga-nidras/
- Hike/Bike/Somatic Fitness
- Social Media 🙂
- Dinner: Netflix 🙂
Let this be a healing time for all of us, you, me, the planet… See you online for class!! Om Shanti, David
“What if you thought of it as the Jews consider the Sabbath—
the most sacred of times? Cease from travel. Cease from buying and selling.
Give up, just for now, on trying to make the world different than it is. Sing. Pray. Touch only those to whom you commit your life. Center down. And when your body has become still, reach out with your heart. Know that we are connected in ways that are terrifying and beautiful. (You could hardly deny it now.) Know that our lives are in one another’s hands. (Surely, that has come clear.) Do not reach out your hands. Reach out your heart. Reach out your words. Reach out all the tendrils of compassion that move, invisibly, where we cannot touch. Promise this world your love– for better or for worse, in sickness and in health, so long as we all shall live.” — Lynn Ungar 3/11/20
PLAYLIST: Henryk Gorecki: Symphony #3 Dawn Upshaw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mcfy3UmnyDY